Blue Line

VIDEO: A tool for guiding all police decisions…

Q&A with Judith Andersen on the ‘Critical Decision Making Model’

July 13, 2020  By Staff

Blue Line recently sat down — virtually, of course — with Dr. Judith P. Andersen, an associate professor of psychology at the University of Toronto Mississauga, to discuss her team’s research into the state of de-escalation and use of force training for police in Ontario, as well as their evidence-based ‘Critical Decision Making Model,’ which was just released to the public this summer.

In 2016 Ombudsman Paul Dubé published a report, recommending the Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services (MCSCS) — which is now the Ministry of the Solicitor General — address training standards on de-escalation and use of force for police in Ontario.

The report also recommended the development of a use of force model that clearly identified de-escalation options, and that was understandable to the public.

Enter the University of Toronto research team led by Andersen. Their work has resulted in some incredibly thorough, science-based policy recommendations for police training as well as an actual guide for teaching de-escalation and use of force.


Andersen and Blue Line’s editor discuss surprises from the research, where the recommendations currently stand, the importance of science-based graphics and much more.

Watch the video below for the full conversation and be sure to register to attend our live virtual presentation with Andersen and Steven Poplawski of Step Training on July 23 at 1:15 p.m. EST. All the details are on

You can also read the UofT research HERE.

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